• Schank JC, Miller ML, Smaldino PE (working paper) The evolution of fair offers with low rejection thresholds in the Ultimatum Game. [bioRxiv]
  • Smaldino PE, Palagi E, Burghardt GM, Pellis SM (under review) The evolution of two types of play.
  • Smaldino PE, Lukaszewski A, von Rueden C, Gurven M (under review) Niche diversity can explain cultural differences in personality trait distributions. [PsyArXiv]
  • Smaldino PE, Turner MA, Contreras Kallens PA (in prep) Short-term solutions to the natural selection of bad science.


  • Smaldino PE (in press) The evolution of the social self: Multidimensionality of social identity solves the coordination problems of a society. In AC Love & WC Wimsatt (Eds.), Beyond the meme: Dynamical structures in cultural evolution. University of Minnesota Press. [PDF]
  • Turner MA, Smaldino PE (2018) Paths to polarization: How extreme views, miscommunication, and random chance drive opinion dynamics. Complexity, 2018, 2740959. [link]
  • Contreras Kallens PA, Dale R, Smaldino PE (2018) Cultural evolution of categorization. Cognitive Systems Research, 52, 765–774. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE, Aplin LM, Farine DR (2018) Sigmoidal acquisition curves are good indicators of conformist transmission. Scientific Reports 8, 14015 . [link]
  • Smaldino PE (2018) Modeling the evolution of strategies for learning and decision making. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 12, 173–176. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE, Flamson TJ, McElreath R (2018) The evolution of covert signaling. Scientific Reports 8, 4905. [link]
  • Smaldino PE (in press) Social identity and cooperation in cultural evolution. Behavioural Processes. [link]
  • Smaldino PE, D’Souza R, Maoz Z (2018) Resilience by structural entrenchment: Dynamics of single-layer and multiplex networks following sudden changes to tie costs. Network Science, 6, 157–175. [PDF]
  • Marriott C, Borg JM, Andras P, Smaldino PE (2018) Social learning and cultural evolution in Artificial Life. Artificial Life 24: 5–9. [PDF]


  • Smaldino PE (2017) Models are stupid, and we need more of them. In RR Vallacher, A Nowak, & SJ Read (Eds.), Computational social psychology. Psychology Press. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE, Janssen MA, Hillis V, Bednar J (2017) Adoption as a social marker: Innovation diffusion with outgroup aversion. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 41, 26–45. [PDF]
  • Waring TM, Goff SH, Smaldino PE (2017) The coevolution of economic institutions and sustainable consumption via cultural group selection. Ecological Economics, 131, 524–532. [PDF]


  • Smaldino PE, McElreath R (2016) The natural selection of bad science. Royal Society Open Science, 3, 160384[link]
  • Smaldino PE (2016) Not even wrong: Imprecision perpetuates the illusion of understanding at the cost of actual understanding [commentary on RF Baumeister et al]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, e124. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE (2016) It’s all connected, man. A review of César Hidalgo’s Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, from Atoms to Economies. Cliodynamics, 7, 175–180. [link]
  • Makowsky MD, Smaldino PE (2016) The evolution of power and the divergence of cooperative norms. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 126, 75–88. [PDF]
  • Richerson P, Baldini R, Bell AV, Demps K, Frost K, Hillis V, Mathew S, Newton EK, Naar N, Newson L, Ross C, Smaldino PE, Waring TM, Zefferman MR (2016) Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence [target article]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, e30. [PDF]


  • McElreath R, Smaldino PE (2015) Replication, communication, and the population dynamics of scientific discovery. PLOS ONE, 10(8), e0136088. [link]
  • Smaldino PE, Calanchini J, Pickett CL (2015) Theory development with agent-based models. Organizational Psychology Review, 5(4), 300–317. [PDF]
  • Schank JC, Smaldino PE, Miller ML (2015) Evolution of fairness in the dictator game by multilevel selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 382, 64–73. [PDF] 
  • Smaldino PE, Newton EK (2015) Teaching as an exaptation [commentary on MA Kline]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, e66. [PDF]
  • Waring TM, Kline MA, Brooks JS, Goff SH, Gowdy J, Janssen MA, Smaldino PE, Jacquet J (2015) A multi-level evolutionary framework for sustainability analysis. Ecology and Society, 20(2), 34. [link]
  • Klein EY, Chelen J, Makowsky MD, Smaldino PE (2015) The need for more integrated epidemic modeling, with emphasis on antibiotic resistance. In R Melnik (Ed.), Mathematical and computational modeling: With applications in the natural and social sciences, engineering, and the arts (pp. 121–134). New York: Wiley. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE, Epstein JM (2015) Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 140437. [link][supplemental proof by Jeremy Van Cleve]


  • Smaldino PE, Waring TM (2014) Let the social sciences evolve [commentary on DS Wilson et al.]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, 437. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE (2014) The cultural evolution of emergent group-level traits [target article]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, 243-295. [PDF][link]
  • Smaldino PE, Newson L (2014) Parent-offspring conflict in mate choice: A commentary on the study by van den Berg, Fawcett, Buunk, and Weissing. Evolution and Human Behavior, 35, 155-157. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE, Lubell M (2014) Institutions and cooperation in an ecology of games. Artificial Life, 20(2), 207-221. [PDF]


  • Smaldino PE, Richerson PJ (2013) Human cumulative cultural evolution as a form of distributed computation. In P Michelucci (Ed.), Handbook of human computation (pp. 979–992). New York: Springer. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE, Newson L, Schank JC, Richerson PJ (2013) Simulating the evolution of the human family: Cooperative breeding increases in harsh environments. PLoS ONE, 8(11), e80753. [link]
  • Smaldino PE (2013) Review of ‘Complex human dynamics: From minds to society,’ edited by A Nowak, K Winkowska-Nowak, D Brée. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 16(4). [link]
  • Smaldino PE (2013) Cooperation in harsh environments and the emergence of spatial patterns. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 56, 6–12. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE, Schank JC, McElreath R (2013) Increased costs of cooperation help cooperators in the long run. The American Naturalist, 181(4), 451–463. [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE (2013) Measures of individual uncertainty for ecological models: Variance and entropy. Ecological Modelling, 254, 50–53. [PDF]


  • Smaldino PE, Pickett CL, Sherman JW, Schank JC (2012) An agent-based model of social identity dynamics. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 15(4), 7. [link]
  • Smaldino PE, Schank JC (2012) Movement patterns, social dynamics, and the evolution of cooperation. Theoretical Population Biology, 82, 48–58 [PDF]
  • Smaldino PE, Richerson PJ (2012) The origins of options. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6, 50. [link]
  • Smaldino PE, Schank JC (2012) Invariants of human emotion [commentary]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 164. [link]
  • Smaldino PE, Schank JC (2012) Human mate choice is a complex system. Complexity, 17(5), 11–22. [PDF]


  • Smaldino PE, Lubell M (2011) An institutional mechanism for assortment in an ecology of games. PLoS ONE, 6(8), e23019. [link]
  • Pickett CL, Smaldino PE, Sherman JW, Schank JC (2011) Agent-based modeling as a tool for studying social identity processes: The case of optimal distinctiveness theory. In RM Kramer, GJ Leonardelli, & RW Livingston (Eds.), Social cognition, social identity, and intergroup relations: A festschrift in honor of Marilynn Brewer (pp. 127–143). New York: Psychology Press. [PDF]


  • Blümel R, Smaldino PE (1999) Induction accelerator for crystalline beams. Physics Letters A, 260, 495–501. [PDF]